PhD, 1990 Environmental Design and Planning, College of Architecture and Urban Studies, Virginia Tech (VT): Francis Ventre (Chair), Charles Goodsell (co-Chair), Charles Bostian, Paul Knox, Tim Luke, Bjorn Wellenius, Advisors; “The Role of Institutional Autonomy in Telecommunications Planning & Development: A Comparative Case Study of North Africa”.

MA, 1985 Communication, Annenberg School for Communication, University of Pennsylvania (George Gerbner, Advisor): “Star WARCs and New Systems: An Institutional Process Analysis of US International Satellite Policy Formation.”

MA, 1980 International Administration, School for International Training: “The Role of Communication Media and Islam in Iranian Revolutionary Movements: 1889-1979” (including six months of field research 1978-79 in Iran during the 1979 revolution).

BA, 1973 English, Bates College, Senior Thesis “Literary Technique in Film: An analysis of ‘The Grapes of Wrath’ from novel to film.”

1972, Alliance Francaise (Paris), Diplome Superieur d’Etudes Francaises, and Diplome de Langue Francaise.